Letter-spacing refers to a uniform adjustment to the spacing of a word or block of text affecting its density and texture. A classic example is a capital V next to a capital A, which need to be brought closer together. Digital 1000 sentence correction pdf download can go in either direction. Although digital type sets tighter on average than metal type, this results primarily from the more ready availability of kerning, rather than any design choice inherent in the technology.
In modern digital page-layout software, high-end applications all use relative measurements proportional to the size of the type. Tight letter-spacing, especially in small text sizes, can diminish legibility. Adding whitespace around the characters allows the individual characters to emerge and be recognized more quickly. Adding too much space, however, may isolate individual letters and make it harder for the reader to perceive whole words and phrases, which reduces readability. Despite the cost, letter-spacing was used in print advertising and book publishing. Letter-spacing may also refer to the insertion of fixed spaces, as was commonly done in hand-set metal type to achieve letter-spacing.
This is a more mechanical method which relies less upon spacing and kerning tables resident in each typeface and accessed and used when letterspacing is applied universally. Fixed spaces include a hair space, thin space, wordspace, en-space, and em-space. An en-space is equal to half the current point size, and an em-space is the same width as the current point size. There is strong kerning between the “V” and the “A”, and no kerning between the “S” and the “T”. Effects of intraword and interword spacing on eye movements during reading: Exploring the optimal use of space in a line of text”, Timothy J. August 2013, Volume 75, Issue 6, pp 1275-1292. The Rhetoric of Typography: Effects on Reading Time, Reading Comprehension, and Perceptions of Ethos”, Eva Brumberger.
Technical Communication, Volume 51, Number 1, February 2004 , pp. The Elements of Typographic Style. Find out how type works. This page was last edited on 2 November 2017, at 05:56. Blibber-Blubber was never marketed to the public. Its pink color set a tradition for nearly all bubble gums to follow. In late May 2005, news circulated that Fleer was suspending its trading card operations immediately.
The move included the auction of the Fleer trade name, as well as other holdings. 25 million, which was rejected by Fleer based on the hope that the sports card market would turn in a direction more favorable to their licenses and target collector demographic. 2006 when random memorabilia cards were mailed to the aforementioned collectors. The Fleer company was started by Frank H. Fleer in 19th century Philadelphia as a confectionery business. Well established as a gum and candy company, Fleer predated many of its competitors into the business of issuing sports cards with its 1923 release of baseball cards in its “Bobs and Fruit Hearts” candy product. These rare cards are basically the same as the 1923 W515 strip cards but are machine cut and have a printed ad for the candy company on the back.