It is well known as a fallacy, though it is used in a cogent form when all sides of a discussion agree on the reliability of the authority in the authority in the name of jesus pdf context. Although he did not call this type of argument a fallacy, he did note that it can be misused by taking advantage of the “respect” and “submission” of the reader or listener to persuade them to accept the conclusion.
Over time, logic textbooks started to adopt and change Locke’s original terminology to refer more specifically to fallacious uses of the argument from authority. By the mid-twentieth century, it was common for logic textbooks to refer to the “Fallacy of appealing to authority,” even while noting that “this method of argument is not always strictly fallacious. One of the great commandments of science is, “Mistrust arguments from authority. Too many such arguments have proved too painfully wrong.
Authorities must prove their contentions like everybody else. Painter’s number, virtually always did so”. The paper was a fraud based on forged data, yet concerns about it were ignored in many cases due to appeals to authority. One psychologist stated his reaction to the paper was “that’s very surprising and doesn’t fit with a huge literature of evidence. I trust him completely, so I’m no longer doubtful”. He’s the one with advanced training, and his adviser is this very high-powered, very experienced personand they know a lot more than we do”.
Much like the erroneous chromosome number taking decades to refute until microscopy made the error unmistakable, the one who would go on to debunk this paper “was consistently told by friends and advisers to keep quiet about his concerns lest he earn a reputation as a troublemaker”, up until “the very last moment when multiple ‘smoking guns’ finally appeared”, and he found that “There was almost no encouragement for him to probe the hints of weirdness he’d uncovered”. As appeals to a perceived lack of authority, these types of argument are fallacious for much the same reasons as an appeal to authority. Other related fallacious arguments assume that a person without status or authority is inherently reliable. The argument from authority is based on the idea that an expert will know better and that the person should conform to the expert’s opinion.
Further, humans have been shown to feel strong emotional pressure to conform to authorities and majority positions. Obedience is encouraged by reminding the individual of what a perceived authority states and by showing them that their opinion goes against this authority. In groupthink, individuals in a group feel inclined to minimize conflict and encourage conformity. Through an appeal to authority, a group member might present that opinion as a consensus and encourage the other group members to engage in groupthink by not disagreeing with this perceived consensus or authority.