16th-century French surgeon, stated that to perform surgery is, “To eliminate that which is superfluous, restore that which has been dislocated, separate that which has been united, join that which has been divided and repair the defects of nature. Advances in these fields have transformed surgery clinical anesthesia fundamentals pdf a risky “art” into a scientific discipline capable of treating many diseases and conditions.
The first surgical techniques were developed to treat injuries and traumas. A combination of archaeological and anthropological studies offer insight into man’s early techniques for suturing lacerations, amputating unsalvageable limbs, and draining and cauterizing open wounds. India and South America developed an ingenious method of sealing minor injuries by applying termites or scarabs who ate around the edges of the wound and then twisted the insects’ neck, leaving their heads rigidly attached like staples. In the case of head wounds, surgical intervention was implemented for investigating and diagnosing the nature of the wound and the extent of the impact while bone splinters were removed preferably by scraping followed by post operation procedures and treatments for avoiding infection and aiding in the healing process. Out of 120 prehistoric skulls found at one burial site in France dated to 6500 BCE, 40 had trepanation holes. There is significant evidence of healing of the bones of the skull in prehistoric skeletons, suggesting that many of those that proceeded with the surgery survived their operation. Examples of healed fractures in prehistoric human bones, suggesting setting and splinting have been found in the archeological record.