This article is about the effects of pre-existing diabetes upon pregnancy. A hyperglycemic maternal environment has also been associated with neonates that are at greater risk diabetes mellitus in pregnancy pdf development of negative health outcomes such as future obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome.
1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Prenatal iron deficiency has been suggested as a possible mechanism for these problems. 2 to 3 months before planning for pregnancy. Managing blood sugar close to normal before and during pregnancy helps to protect the health of mother and the baby.
Extra insulin may be needed for type 1 diabetics during pregnancy. Doctors may advise to check blood sugar more often to maintain near-normal blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus may be effectively managed by appropriate meal planning, increased physical activity and properly-instituted insulin treatment. Cut down sweets, eats three small meals and one to three snacks a day, maintain proper mealtimes, and include balanced fiber intake in the form of fruits, vegetables and whole-grains. Monitor blood sugar level frequently, doctors may ask to check the blood glucose more often than usual. Each time when checking the blood sugar level, keep a proper record of the results and present to the health care team for evaluation and modification of the treatment. If blood sugar levels are above targets, a perinatal diabetes management team may suggest ways to achieve targets.
Many may need extra insulin during pregnancy to reach their blood sugar target. Insulin is not harmful for the baby. Some women wonder whether breast feeding is recommended after they have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Breast feeding is recommended for most babies, including when mothers may be diabetic. In fact, the child’s risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life may be lower if the baby was breast-fed. It also helps the child to maintain a healthy body weight during infancy.
Although benefits of breast-feeding for the children of diabetic mothers have been documented, ingestion of diabetic breast milk has also been linked to delayed language development on a dose-dependent basis. These two groups are further subdivided according to their associated risks and management. An early age of onset or long-standing disease comes with greater risks, hence the first three subtypes. Blood glucose levels in pregnant woman should be regulated as strictly as possible.
Higher levels of glucose early in pregnancy are associated with teratogenic effects on the developing fetus. 2016 was designed to find out the most effective blood sugar range to guide treatment for women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus in their pregnancy. The review concluded that quality scientific evidence is not yet available to determine the best blood sugar range for improving health for pregnant women with diabetes and their babies. Fetal Origins of Adult Disease”. School-age children born to diabetic mothers and to mothers with gestational diabetes exhibit a high rate of inattention and fine and gross motor impairment”. The effect of maternal diabetes during pregnancy on the neurodevelopment of offspring”. Impact of breast-feeding on psychomotor and neuropsychological development in children of diabetic mothers: role of the late neonatal period”.
OBSTETRICS: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2002. This page was last edited on 11 November 2017, at 11:11. The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.
Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise. Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.
Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.