28, a majority of the states in Europe. Both the ECSC and EEC were later incorporated into the European Union while the EAEC maintains...

28, a majority of the states in Europe. Both the ECSC and EEC were later incorporated into the European Union while the EAEC maintains a distinct legal european history books pdf despite sharing members and institutions.

European union and even proposed the maintenance of international military forces to provide recognised states with support against changes by violence. World War II that real steps were taken. After two devastating world wars, the political climate favoured an international unity that could preserve peace in Europe effectively. World War II from 1939 to 1945 saw a human and economic catastrophe which hit Europe hardest. Once again, there was a desire to ensure it could never happen again, particularly with the war giving the world nuclear weapons. However, the exception was the USSR, which became a superpower after World War II and maintained the status for 45 years.

1949 as the first pan-European organisation. European territory” was rejected by a referendum in 1955. The two new communities were created separately from ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The executives of the new communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the “High Authority”. Throughout the 1960s tensions began to show with France seeking to limit supranational power and rejecting the membership of the United Kingdom.

While the political progress of the Communities was hesitant in the 1960s, this was a fertile period for European legal integration. 1963 that declared the “direct effect” of European law, that is to say, its enforceability before national courts by private parties. European Communities on 1 January 1973. In 1979, the European Parliament held its first direct elections by universal suffrage. A further enlargement took place in 1981 with Greece joining on 1 January, six years after applying.

1 January 1986 in the third enlargement. It was a major component in completing the single market and came into force on 1 July 1987. Community and began the longest application process for any country. 7 February 1992 which established the European Union when it came into force the following year. Santer had to use his new powers under Maastricht to flex greater control over his choice of Commissioners. They took office on 23 January 1995. On 1 January 2002, notes and coins were put into circulation, replacing the old currencies entirely.