This article is about the discipline. As a “field of inquiry with a diverse scope” its “fundamental goal is to advance management and policies so that government can function. Administrators tend to work with both paper documents and computer files: “There has been a significant shift from paper to electronic records during the past introduction to comparative public administration pdf decades.
Although government institutions continue to print and maintain paper documents as ‘official records,’ the vast majority of records are now created and stored in electronic format. In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen. This implies that it must “relate itself to concepts of justice, liberty, and fuller economic opportunity for human beings” and is thus “concerned with “people, with ideas, and with things. 1887 is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study”. The key term “product” refers to “those items that are constructed or produced” such as prisons, roads, laws, schools, and security.
As implementors, public managers engage these products. They participate in the doing and making of the “living” democracy. A living democracy is “an environment that is changing, organic”, imperfect, inconsistent and teaming with values. Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned “with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and ultimately making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values.