This article has multiple issues. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. A simulink for automotive system design pdf vehicle has multiple forms of motive power.
Hybrids come in many configurations. For example, a hybrid may receive its energy by burning petroleum, but switch between an electric motor and a combustion engine. A diesel-electric powertrain fails the definition of hybrid because the electrical drive transmission directly replaces the mechanical transmission rather than being a supplementary source of motive power. 1930s, which normally used traction current delivered by wire.
This enabled the vehicle to manoeuvre around obstacles and broken overhead transmission wires. Powertrains may either use chemical, solar, nuclear or kinetic and make them useful for propulsion. ICE that can recharge the batteries or power the vehicle. ICE type was commercially available as of 2016. Either source may provide the primary motive force, with the other augmenting the primary. Other combinations offer efficiency gains from superior energy management and regeneration that are offset by expense, complexity and the battery limitations.
A combustion-electric hybrid has batteries that are light that offer higher energy density that are far more costly. ICEs require only a battery large enough to operate the electrical system and ignite the engine. Structure of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle. Parallel hybrid systems have both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that can both individually drive the car or both coupled up jointly giving drive.
This is the most common hybrid system as of 2016. Most electric bicycles are of this type. ICE can also act as a generator for supplemental recharging. This makes them more efficient in urban ‘stop-and-go’ conditions. They use a smaller battery pack than other hybrids. Saturn VUE and Aura Greenline and Chevrolet Malibu hybrids also employ a parallel hybrid architecture.
An alternative parallel hybrid is the ‘through the road’ type. In this system a conventional drivetrain powers one axle, with an electric motor or motors driving another. This arrangement was used by the earliest ‘off track’ trolleybuses. It in effect provides a complete backup power train. In modern motors batteries can be recharged through regenerative braking or by loading the electrically driven wheels during cruise. This allows a simpler approach to power-management.
This layout also has the advantage of providing four-wheel-drive in some conditions. An example of this principle is a bicycle fitted with a front hub motor, which assists the cyclist’s pedal power at the rear wheel. Structure of a series-hybrid vehicle. The grey square represents a differential gear. Electric transmission has been available as an alternative to conventional mechanical transmissions since 1903.
Typically mechanical transmissions impose many penalties, including weight, bulk, noise, cost, complexity and a drain on engine power with every gear-change, whether accomplished manually or automatically. Unlike ICEs, electric motors do not require a transmission. ICE is no longer directly connected to the demand. The arguments of greater flexibility, higher efficiency and less emissions at the point of use are achieved in a series-hybrid system for road vehicles when an intermediate electric battery, acting as an energy buffer, sits between the electric generator and the electric traction motors. The ICE turns a generator and is not mechanically connected to the driving wheels. This isolates the engine from demand, allowing it to consistently operate at its most efficient speed. Traction motors frequently are powered only by the electric battery, which can be charged from external sources such as the electricity grid.
ICEs are most efficient when turning at a constant speed. ICEs can run optimally when turning a generator. Series-hybrid systems offer smoother acceleration by avoiding gear changes. ICE to generate electricity and start the engine. The drive motor becomes a generator and recovers energy by converting kinetic to electrical energy, also slowing the vehicle and preventing thermal losses. May be plugged into the grid to recharge the battery. The electric motor may be entirely fed by electricity from the battery or via the generator turned by the ICE, or both.