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This article is about irrigation for agriculture and landscapes. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the...

This article is about irrigation for agriculture and landscapes. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Animal-powered irrigation, Upper What is irrigation pdf, ca.

Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennium BCE. BCE and was based on wet season flooding and water harvesting. Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China. 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE.

Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation. 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and steep hills to tap groundwater. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water.

Due to their engineering superiority in this sector, they were often called ‘masters of irrigation’. 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water. It was installed in irrigation tanks as part of a nationwide system to measure and collect rainfall for agricultural applications. With this instrument, planners and farmers could make better use of the information gathered in the survey. The earliest agricultural irrigation canal system known in the U. The irrigation canal system predates the Hohokam culture by two thousand years and belongs to an unidentified culture. In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture known to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops, and their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by AD 1300.

Between the 7th and 14th centuries, they also built and maintained extensive irrigation networks along the lower Salt and middle Gila rivers that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East, Egypt, and China. These were constructed using relatively simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, and achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. The Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, tobacco, maize, beans and squash, as well as harvested an assortment of wild plants. Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers. Smaller irrigation areas are spread across almost all populated parts of the world.

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